EFFICIENCY IN ISLAMIC BANKING: A NON-PARAMETRIC APPROACH

  • Umi Karomah Yaumidin

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan tingkat efisiensi bank-bank Islam di kawasan Timur Tengah dan Asia Tenggara. Hal ini didasari pada kegagalan perbankan yang mendorong terjadinya krisis keuangan domestik maupun international dalam dasawarsa terakhir. Efisiensi perbankan akhirnya menjadi perhatian penting tidak hanya di Asia setelah krisis di tahun 1997, namun juga di belahan dunia lainnya. Di sisi lain perkembangan bank-bank Islam kiranya telah dianggap sebagai alternatif solusi untuk menuju perbankan yang sehat. Dengan demikian, studi tentang efisiensi bank-bank Islam menjadi kajian menarik, terutama perbandingan efisiensi antar kawasan. Dalam paper ini digunakan metode non parametrik Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) untuk mengukur efisiensi skor data panel yang mencakup empat puluh delapan bank Islam selama kurun waktu 2000 hingga 2004. Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam paper ini adalah pendekatan intermediasi yang dianggap paling sesuai dengan prinsip-prinsip sistem keuangan Islam.

Secara keseluruhan, hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa bank-bank Islam di Asia Tenggara sedikit lebih effisien dibandingkan bank-bank Islam di Timur Tengah. Salah satu penyebabnya adalah tragedi 9/11 di tahun 2001 dan perang Iraq yang berlangsung di tahun 2002. Oleh karena itu dapat disimpulkan bahwa bank-bank Islam masih sangat tergantung pada sistem keuangan dan segala bentuk peraturan perbankan yang berlaku baik di tingkat nasional, regional maupun global, serta karakteristik perbedaan resiko yang berkonsekuensi pada perbedaan regulasi prudential sangat menentukan fluktuasi skor effisiensi.

Keywords:Efficiency, Islamic banking, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)

JEL Classification: D61, G21, C14

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Published
2007-05-23
Section
Articles