EMPLOYMENT PROBABILITIES AND WORKFORCE DISTRIBUTION IN THE INDIAN MANUFACTURING SECTOR: A STATE-LEVEL ANALYSIS
Employment distribution disparities are preventing the Indian economy from achieving inclusive growth. The skewed distribution of employment is one of the reasons for the rising inequalities in the economy. In this regard, the present study analyses the employment probabilities of Indians working in the manufacturing sector. A binary logit model has been used on a pooled cross-sectional dataset of the fourth (2013-14) and fifth (2015-16) Employment and Unemployment Surveys (EUS). The study analyses four major attributes, namely castes (social categories), gender, location, and education. We analyze these attributes separately for all the 29 main Indian states, and find that caste and location are highly important deciding factors of employment probabilities in the manufacturing sector.
Agarwal, A. (2015), An examination of the Determinants of Employment Center Growth: Do Local Policies Play A Role? Journal of Urban Affairs, 37, 192–206.
Aggarwal, A., Johnes, G., Freguglia, R.S. and Spricigo, G. (2011), Education and Labour Market Outcomes: Evidence from India, Working Paper No.615663, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department, United Kingdom, available at: https://www.lancaster.ac.uk/media/lancasteruniversity/content assets/documents/lums/economics/working-papers/EducationLabouMarketIndia.pdf (accessed 30 November 2016).
Aggarwal, A. (2016). Growth, Employment and Structural Change: Punjab Versus 16 Major States of India. In L. Singh & N. Singh (Eds.), Economic Transformation of a Developing Economy (pp. 229–249). Springer Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-0197-0_11
Agrawal, T. (2014), Gender and Caste-Based Wage Discrimination in India: Some Recent Evidence. Journal for Labour Market Research, 47, 329–340.
Ambedkar, B.R. (1944), Annihilation of Caste: With a Reply to Mahatma Gandhi, 2nd ed., Higher & Technical Education Department, Government of Maharashtra, Mumbai, available at: https://www.worldcat.org/title/annihilation-of-castewith-a-reply-to-mahatma-gandhi/oclc/950889730&referer=brief_results.
Amirapu, A., & Subramanian, A. (2015). Manufacturing or Services? An Indian Illustration of a Development Dilemma (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2623158). Social Science Research Network. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2623158
Araujo, C. (2004). Can Non-Agricultural Employment Reduce Rural Poverty? Evidence from Mexico. Cuadernos de Economía, 41, 383–399. http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?pid=S071768212004012400004&script=sci_arttext&tlng=pt
Baah-Boateng, W. (2016), The Youth Unemployment Challenge in Africa: What Are the Drivers? The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 27, 413–431.
Bairwa, A.K., Chakradhar, J. and Sharma, P. (2019), Employment Discrimination in Indian Manufacturing Industries: A Logistic Analysis, The Singapore Economic Review, p. S021759081944003X.
Bairwa, A.K., and Sharma, P. (2019a), Impact of Labour Attributes and Probability of Employability in Indian Labour Market: A Sectoral Analysis. Journal of Public Affairs, 19, 1–10.
Bairwa, A.K. and Sharma, P. (2019b), Inter-regional Occupational Disparities in Indian Manufacturing Sector With Regards To Socioeconomic Labour Attributes, Labour & Industry. A Journal of the Social and Economic Relations of Work, 29, 352–369.
Banerjee, T. (2016), Impacts of Vocational Education and Training on Employment and Wages in Indian Manufacturing Industries: Variation across Social Groups—Empirical Evidences from the 68th Round NSSO Data. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 59, 489–509.
Cameron, A.C. and Trivedi, P.K. (2010), Microeconometrics Using Stata, Revised Edition, StataCorp LP, Texas, available at: https://ideas.repec.org/b/tsj/spbook/musr.html (accessed 3 May 2019).
Cappellari, L. and Tatsiramos, K. (2015), With A Little Help from My Friends? Quality of Social Networks, Job Finding and Job Match Quality. European Economic Review, 78, 55–75.
Das, D. K., & Kalita, G. (2009). Are Labour-Intensive Industries Generating Employment in India? Evidence from Firm Level Survey. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 52, 411. http://www.isleijle.org/ijle/IssuePdf/38d48da4-8e5c-4f3d-a7d4-432c4abdd190.pdf
Deshpande, A. and Newman, K. (2007), Where the Path Leads: The Role of Castein Post-University Employment Expectations, Economic and Political Weekly, 42, 4133–4140.
DFID. (2012). Building Jobs and Prosperity in Developing countries. Department for International Development.
Dholakia, R.H. (1994), Spatial dimension of acceleration of economic growth in India, Economic and Political Weekly, 29, 2303–2309.
Dom, H. (1999), Oh You Hindu... AWAKE!, Dalitstan Journal, available at: http://web.archive.org/web/20011211182139/www.dalitstan.or g/books/index.html.
Fan, C.C. and Sun, M. (2008), Regional Inequality in China, 1978-2006, Eurasian Geography and Economics, 49, 1–18.
FICCI. (2014). Suggested LABOUR POLICY REFORMS. http://ficci.in/SEDocument/20301/FICCI-NOTE-ON-LABOUR-POLICY-REFORMS.pdf
Gang, I.N., Sen, K. and Yun, M.-S. (2012), Is Caste Destiny? Occupational Diversification Among Dalits in Rural India, SSRN Scholarly Paper No. ID1984645, Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY, available at: https://
papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1984645 (accessed 15 May 2018).
Goldar, B., & Sadhukhan, A. (2015). Employment and Wages in Indian Manufacturing: Post-reform Performance. International Labour Organization. http://econpapers.repec.org/RePEc:ilo:ilowps:488132
Hout, M. and Rosen, H.S. (1999), Self-Employment, Family Background, and Race, Working Paper No. 7344, National Bureau of Economic Research, available at:https://doi.org/10.3386/w7344.
IHD (Ed.). (2014), India Labour and Employment Report, 2014: Workers in the Era of Globalization, Academic Foundation : Institute for Human Development,New Delhi.
Ilaiah, K. (1996), Why I Am Not a Hindu: A Sudra Critique of Hindutva, Philosophy, Culture, and Political Economy, Distributed by Bhatkal Books International, Bombay.
ILO. (2019), Employment by Economic Activity, available at: https://www.ilo.org/ilostat-files/Documents/description_ECO_EN.pdf (accessed 14 January 2019).
Kingdon, G.G. (1998), Does the labour market explain lower female schooling in India? Journal of Development Studies, 35, 39–65.
Kong, J. (2011), Factors Affecting Employment, Unemployment, and Graduate Study for University Graduates in Beijing, Advances in Applied Economics, Business and Development, Vol. 1, presented at the International Conference on Advances in Education and Management, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Dalian, China, 353–361.
Labour Bureau. (2015). Indian Labour Year Book—2011 and 2012. Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India.
Labour Bureau. (2016). Fifth Annual Employment—Unemployment Survey (2015-16) (No. 1). Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India. http:// labourbureaunew.gov.in/UserContent/EUS_5th_1.pdf
Maddala, G.S. and Lahiri, K. (2009), Introduction to Econometrics, 4th ed., Wiley- INDIA, available at: www.wileyeurope.com/college/maddala.
Madheswaran, S. and Attewell, P. (2007), Caste Discrimination in the Indian Urban Labour Market: Evidence from the National Sample Survey, Economic and Political Weekly, 42, 4146–4153.
Marelli, E. and Vakulenko, E. (2016), Youth Unemployment in Italy and Russia: Aggregate Trends and Individual Determinants, The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 27, 387–405.
MOSPI. (2008), NIC 2008 Codes & Its Description, available at: http://mospi.nic.in/sites/default/files/6ec_dirEst/ec6_nic_2008_code.html.
Nilsson, S. and Rubenson, K. (2014), On the Determinants of Employment-Related Organised Education and Informal Learning, Studies in Continuing Education, 36, 304–321.
Oxford. (2011). The Global Diversity Report (An Annual Guide to Measure Global Employee Diversity). Oxford Economics.
Panagariya, A. (2008), India: The Emerging Giant, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, available at: http://dlx.b-ok.org/ genesis/355000/189cfd89dd3a0b5fac9cf7f27d8f1fe3/_as/%5BArvind_Panagariya%5D_India_The_Emerging_Giant(b-ok.org).pdf.
Papola, T. S. (2008). Employment Challenge and Strategies in India: An Assessmentin the Framework of ILO’s Global Employment Agenda. International LabourOrganization, Sub-regional Office for South Asia.
Ramaswamy, K. V. (2012). Wage Inequality in Indian Manufacturing: Is It Trade,Technology or Labour Regulations?
Ramaswamy, K.V. (2014). Small Enterprises in Indian Manufacturing and Inclusive Growth: Search for Compensatory Mechanisms, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, available at:http://www.igidr.ac.in/pdf/publication/WP-2014-018.pdf.
Rani, U., & Unni, J. (2004). Unorganised and Organised Manufacturing in India: Potential for Employment Generating Growth. Economic and Political Weekly, 4568–4580. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4415652
Schioppa, F.K.P. and Lupi, C. (2002). Family Income and Wealth, Youth Unemployment and Active Labour Market Policies. International Review of Applied Economics, 16, 407–416.
Schmidt, P. and Strauss, R.P. (1975). The Prediction of Occupation Using Multiple Logit Models. International Economic Review, 16, 471.
Sharma, N. (2013). Growth and Structural Change in Indian Manufacturing Since Liberalisation: An Interstate Analysis (Discussion Paper No. 6). Centre for Development Economics and Innovation Studies (CDEIS) Punjabi University. http://www.punjabiuniversity.ac.in/cdeiswebsite/downloads/discussion_papers/6%20niharika%20sharma.pdf
Thurik, A.R., Audretsch, D.B. and others. (1999), Innovation, Industry Evolution and Employment, available at: http://dare.ubvu.vu.nl/handle/1871/48020 (accessed 3 January 2017).
Thorat, S., & Madheswaran, S. (2018). Graded Caste Inequality and Poverty: Evidence on Role of Economic Discrimination. Journal of Social Inclusion Studies, 4, 3–29. https://doi.org/10.1177/2394481118775873
Walters, V. (2019), Parenting from the ‘Polluted’ Margins: Stigma, Education and Social (Im) Mobility for the Children of India’s Out-Casted Sanitation Workers, South Asia. Journal of South Asian Studies, 1–18.
Wooldridge, J.M. (2003), Introductory Econometrics: A Modern Approach, Economic Analysis, available at:https://doi.org/10.1198/jasa.2006.s154.
Copyright (c) 2020 Buletin Ekonomi Moneter dan Perbankan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Buletin Ekonomi Moneter dan Perbankan / Bulletin of Monetary Economics and Banking is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.